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General Reviews of Specific Components of CRE Literature:

Johnson, David W., Johnson, Roger T., & Tjosvold, Dean. (2000). Constructive Controversy: The Value of intellectual opposition. In Morton Deutsch and Peter Coleman (Eds.), The handbook of conflict resolution (pp. 65-85). San Franscisco: Jossey-Bass

Overviews research on Constructive Controversy programs that are used to teach debate and advocacy skills to children and adults. The assumption is that when people present their opinions and arguments on an issue, are asked to reflect on and provide rationale for those positions, and critically assess the quality of the other's arguments and information, there is a development of reasoned, nonviolent orientations to conflict. They overview the research conducted in Constructive Controversy over the past thirty years, noting that CC has proven impacts for achievement and retention, quality of problem solving, cognitive reasoning, motivation to achieve, and creativity, task involvement, and attitude change.

Johnson, David W., & Johnson, Roger T. (2001). Teaching Students to be Peacemakers: A meta-analysis. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle, WA, April 10-14.

Between 1988 and 2000 the authors conducted 17 different studies on the effectiveness of conflict resolution training (using TSPM) in eight schools in two countries. Students ranged from K-9 and were from urban, suburban, and rural schools. Results indicated that students learned the conflict resolution procedures taught, retained their knowledge throughout the school year, applied the knowledge to actual conflicts, transferred skills to nonclassroom and nonschool settings, used the skills similarly in family and school settings.

Sandy, Sandra V., & Cochran, Kathleen M. (2000). The development of conflict resolution skills in children. In Morton Deutsch and Peter Coleman (Eds.), The handbook of conflict resolution (pp. 316- 342). San Francisco: Josses-Bass

Discusses the general evidence in support of social and emotional learning programs and conflict education programs for developing key social and emotional competencies for children pre-school through high school. However, gives more explicit coverage of effectiveness for the pre-school population those other sources. Describes the Peaceful Kids ECSEL (Early Childhood Education Social and Emotional Learning) Program which role model for teachers and students methods of teaching emotional awareness, cooperative skills, and empathy and perspective-taking, and problem-solving to pre-school children. The teachers and parents are also taught constructive discipline practices. The results of the research suggest significant increases in children's assertiveness, cooperation and self-control; and significant decreases in aggressive, withdrawn and moody behaviors. Pre-school staff became better able to independently integrate the skills in the class. And, parents increased in authoritative (as opposed to authoritarian) parenting practices.

Pettigrew, Thomas F., & Tropp, Linda R. (2000). Does intergroup contact reduce prejudice? Recent meta-analytic findings. In Stuart Oskamp (Ed.), Reducing prejudice and discrimination. (pp. 93-114). Mahwah, NJ.

This chapter presents the results of a meta-analysis of 203 studies on the impact of interventions in intergroup contact on reduction of prejudice. Combined, 90,000 subjects from 25 different nations participated in the research that is analyzed here. 73% of the studies are from the United States. The meta-analysis focused only on empirical studies in which intergroup contact was a causal, independent variable for intergroup prejudice and where research was done on contact between members of discrete, clearly distinguishable groups. Finally, the prejudice dependent variables had to be collected on individuals, rather than simple total aggregates across groups, and comparative data had to be available to evaluate changes in prejudice. With these criteria, the meta-analysis shows that face to face interaction between members of distinguishable groups is importantly related to reduced prejudice in 94% of the studies. One major mediator of the size of the contact-prejudice effects involves whether the participants are from a majority group or a stigmatized minority group. Majority group participants reveal much larger impacts from contact than minority group members.

Burrell, Nancy A., Zirbel, Cindy S., & Allen, Mike. (2003). Evaluating peer mediation outcomes in educational settings: A Meta-analytic review. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 21(1), 7-26.

Conducted a meta-analysis on 43 studies (published between 1985 and 2003) of peer mediation programs that met the following criteria: (1) focused on K-12 student population, (2) used quantitative methods resulting in numerical measurable effects, (3) involved at least one variable relating to mediation training or practices in which outcomes of the actual training or practices were measured. The results overwhelmingly support peer mediation effectiveness in terms of increasing students' conflict knowledge and skills, improving school climate, and reducing negative behavior.

Olweus, Daniel (1991). Bully/victim problems among school children: Basic facts and effects of a school-based intervention program. In D. J. Pepler and K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 411-448). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Also Olweus, D. (1994). Annotation: Bullying at school: Basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 1171-1190.

Reports on program evaluation of the effectiveness of the Bullying Prevention program developed by Olweus. Data on effectiveness has been gathered in several countries. This large scale evaluation looked at the efficacy of the bullying program with Norwegian children ages 8-16. The results indicate sustained (at least 2 years) reductions in school aggression (bullying was reduced by 50%), fighting, vandalism, alcohol abuse, and truancy. The results also report improvements in school order, peer relationships, attitudes toward school and homework. The effects were more pronounced the longer the program was in place. [Other reports of effectiveness of the Bullying Prevention program have been forthcoming from Canada (Pepler, D. J., Craig, W. M., Ziegler, S., & Charach, A., 1994, An evaluation of an anti-bullying intervention in Toronto schools. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 13, 95-110); England (Whitney, I., Rivers, I., Smith, P. K., & Sharp, S., 1994, The Sheffield project: Methodology and findings. In P. K. Smith and S. Sharp, Eds., School bullying: Insights and perspectives, pp. 20-56. London: Routledge) and the US (Melton, G. B., Limber, S. P., Flerx, V., Osgood, W., Chambers, J., Henggeler, S. W., Cunninghamn P. B., & Olweus, D. , 1998, Violence among rural youth. Final report to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention - Grant Nos. 94-JN-CX-005 & 96- MU-FX-0016 - Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.)]