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Specific Studies of Note in CRE/SEL/PE:

Aber, J. L., Brown, J. I., and Jones, S. M. "Developmental Trajectories Toward Violence In Middle Childhood: Course, Demographic Differences, And Response To School-Based Intervention." Developmental Psychology, 2003, 39(2), 324-348.

Four waves of data on features of children's social and emotional development known to forecast aggression and violence were collected in the fall and spring over two years for a representative sample of 1st to 6th graders from New York City Public Schools (N = 11,160). The results indicate that RCCP, when delivered as designed by the classroom teachers, had significant impact on reducing attitudes and behaviors predictive of aggression and violence. Positive implications for orientation to academic achievement were also reported. Program fidelity was identified as a critical factor. Students in classes where teachers delivered some RCCP but not the amount or nature proscribed actually performed worse on dependent measures than control students.

Jones, Tricia S., & Sanford, Rebecca (2003). Building the container: Curriculum infusion and classroom climate. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 21(1), 115-130.

Reports findings from the National Curriculum Integration Project that examined curriculum integration of CRE and SEL in middle school populations over a two year period. Research demonstrated that experienced teachers integrating CRE/SEL in language arts, math and science curricula had significantly better classroom climate over time than control classes. ((Full data from the NCIP report can be obtained in Jones, Tricia S., Sanford, Rebecca, & Bodtker, A. (2001). The National Curriculum Integration Project: Research report. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University.))

Farrell, Albert D., Meyer, Aleta L., & White, Kamila S. (2001). Evaluation of Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways (RIPP): A school-based prevention program for reducing violence among urban adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30(4), 451-464.

RIPP is a 6th grade violence prevention program designed for urban youth. This study investigated the program impacts among 3 urban middle school populations that were randomized to intervention (N = 321) and control groups (N = 305). RIPP participants had fewer disciplinary violations for violent offenses and in school suspensions than control group students. The reduction was maintained at a 12 month follow-up level for boys but not for girls.

Shapiro, Jeremy, P., Burgoon, Jeolla D., Welker, Carolyn J., & Clough, Joseph B. (2002). Evaluation of the Peacemakers program: School-based violence prevention for students in grades four through eight. Psychology in the Schools, 39(1), 87-100.

Components of the Peacemakers Program are delivered initially by teachers and remedially by school psychologists and counselors. This study sampled almost 2,000 students in an urban public school system, with pre and post-program assessment and comparison to a control group. There were significant, positive program effects on knowledge of psychosocial skills, self-reported aggression, teacher-reported aggression, a 41% decrease in aggression-related disciplinary incidents, and a 67% reduction in suspensions for violent behavior.

Bosworth, K., Espelage, D., DuBay, T., Daytner, G., Karageorge, K. (2000). Preliminary evaluation of a multi-media violence prevention program for adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 24(4), 268-80.

Evaluated a computer driven intervention (SMART Talk) containing anger-management and conflict resolution modules. 558 middle school students were randomly assigned by academic teams to treatment or control conditions and assessed before and after implementation. The intervention was successful in diminishing students' beliefs supportive of violence and increasing their intentions to use nonviolent strategies.

Van Scholack, Leihua (2000). Promoting social-emotional competence: Effects of a social-emotional learning program and corresponding teaching practices in the schools. Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A, 61(6-A), 2189.

This study investigated effects of an SEL intervention and corresponding teacher practices on students' social emotional competence. Two waves of second and fourth graders from 15 schools (N = 2052) were followed over two years. Schools were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. A developmental SEL curriculum was taught in experimental classrooms. Two years of lessons combined with teachers' support of student emotion regulation resulted in lower self-reported aggression and negative peer relations and lower preference for aggressive social strategies. One of the most important contributions of this study is the measurement of teaching practices that support students' social and emotional learning and demonstration that those components are essential for change.

Fast, Jonathan, Fanelli, Frank, & Salen, Louis (2003). How becoming mediators affects aggressive students. Children & Schools, 25(3), 161-171.

Reports on a nine-month study in an urban middle school to reduce levels of aggressiveness of a group of 7th graders by assigning them to a positive role as mediators for 5th and 6th grade students. Pretest and posttest measures of self-concept and teachers' perceptions of problem behaviors showed dramatic improvements.

Stevahn, Laurie, Johnson, David W., Johnson, Roger T., & Schultz, Ray (2002). Effects of conflict resolution training integrated into a high school social studies curriculum. Journal of Social Psychology, 142(3), 305-333.

Examined effectiveness of a conflict resolution and peer mediation training among high school students. Authors randomly assigned 2 of 4 classes to receive conflict resolution and peer mediation training and the remaining 2 classes acted as control classes studying the mandated social studies curriculum. The trained students showed significant increases in conflict competence. The interventions also had a significant impact on academic achievement - promoted higher achievement, greater long-term learning of the academic learning and greater transfer of academic learning in social studies to language arts.

Morris, Susan M., & Heibert, Bryan (1990). The effects of participation in a Canadian peace education program. Peace and Change, 15(3), 292-312.

Examined the impact of a peace education curriculum delivered by teachers to elementary school students. Six classes taught by six different teachers received the curriculum. Matching control classes were selected for comparison. Exposure to peace education significantly increased students' knowledge of peace and peace dynamics, and students' perceived ability to impact/prevent nuclear war.

Horne, Arthur M. (2003). School bullying: Changing the problem by changing the school. School Psychology Review, 32(3), 431-445.

Studies a school-wide bullying prevention program in an urban elementary school. All students completed surveys pre and posttest. There was a 40% reduction among younger children (K-2) in mean self-reported aggression and a 19% reduction in mean self reported victimization. Among 3-5 graders there was a 23% reduction in mean reported victimization, but no significant differences in self-reported aggression.

Lane-Garon, Pamela & Richardson, Tim (2003). Mediator mentors: Improving school climate, nurturing student disposition. Conflict resolution Quarterly, 21(1): 47-68.

Education is in the midst of an essentialist movement, with academic achievement and accountability as primary foci. All empirical and anecdotal evidence tells us that the pursuit of academic achievement requires learning environments which foster civility, safety and connectedness. "Mediator Mentors," a collaborative research and service project was begun by California State University Fresno faculty and the staff of an elementary school (K-8) in the Central San Joaquin Valley. The purpose of the research was to assess conflict resolution program effects on students (N= 300) and school climate. The purpose of the project was to develop a conflict resolution program that would "fit into the life of the school" and enhance school climate. Cross-age mentoring is an important component of this collaborative project. University students preparing for roles in helping professions benefit from mediation training and practice. Many of the project mentors are becoming teachers; the rest--counselors and social workers. Elementary students benefit from interaction with university students who are young enough to vividly remember their own, recent public school experience and who themselves care about developing empathy, practicing respectful communication, and cooperation. Assessed were student cognitive and affective perspective taking (mediators and non). Additionally, student perceptions of school safety were explored. This article reports and discusses results after one year of CRE program implementation. Results indicate impressive impacts of CRE on student conflict competence, particularly perspective-taking and school climate. [See also Lane-Garon, P. (l998). Developmental considerations: Encouraging perspective taking in student mediators. Mediation Quarterly, 16:2.]