Managing and Resolving Conflicts Effectively in Schools and Classrooms

Links to Additional Resources

These additional resources were provided by the course authors:

There are a number of resources that can help you build a case for the importance of conflict management in your school or community and develop your own comprehensive program. The following resources may be particularly helpful:

Research Proven Benefits

Evaluating Your Conflict Resolution Education Program: A Guide for Educators and Evaluators: This manual provides an introduction to program evaluation and evaluation tools as well as 125 pages of user-friendly materials for evaluating staff development, student peer mediation programs, and curriculum integration and can be downloaded from the following web site:

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Programs created A Guide to Implementing Programs in Schools, Youth Serving Organizations, and Community and Juvenile Justice Settings. It is available at:

Investing Wisely in Prevention Programs: A new report from the Washington State Institute for Public Policy explores how the government of the state of Washington can get the best return on the dollar when investing in "research-based" prevention or early intervention programs for youth. Its findings include rankings of financial costs and benefits of specific local and national programs.

The U.S. Department of Education’s publication “The Achiever” has an announcement about a new publication “to assist educators in finding and using strategies that have been validated in rigorous studies”. “The federal K-12 grant programs under the No Child Left Behind Act require state and local education officials to use scientifically based research to guide their decisions about which programs and strategies to implement.” The 19-page document “Identifying and Implementing Educational Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide” is available online at
The web site to subscribe to “The Achiever” newsletter:

A power point on “Proven Benefits of Conflict Resolution Education Research” by Dr. Tricia Jones of Temple University can be downloaded from the Web site:

Best Practice


Link to National Peer Mediation Standards (

Link to National Conflict Resolution Education Standards (


For a link to statutes on conflict management and related topics in the United States, please visit Georgia State University's Consortium on Negotiation and Conflict Resolution's (CNCR) Legislative Database which provides access to current and pending school conflict management legislation for school stakeholders, conflict management practitioners, and policy makers.

The Education Commission of the States provides non-partisan information about education policy to help state leaders develop educational systems. This web site contains policy updates related to a variety of topics including CRE and related fields.

State Models

Below is a brief listing of state government agencies that have programming in Conflict Resolution Education or related topics. For additional states doing this work, please see the Conflict Resolution Legislation Database listed above under STATUTES.

New Mexico Public Education Department: Special Education Dispute Resolution

North Carolina Center for the Prevention of School Violence:

Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management

Tennessee Department of Education

International Models

For an overview of conflict management related legislation and policies around the world, please see the Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management’s Web site at:

What a Comprehensive Model Includes

School Culture

To download a power point on the stages of CRE implementation in a school designed by Dr. Tricia Jones of Temple University, please visit the Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution’s Web site at:

Truancy Mediation

This process uses adult mediators to mediate cases where students are truant and tries to identify causes of truancy and negotiate alternatives for truancy. To see a sample state-wide model of this type of program in Ohio through the Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management, go to:

Special Education Mediation

The Consortium for Appropriate Dispute Resolution (CADRE), the National Center on Dispute Resolution in Special Education, offers a web site that has a wealth of information on issues related to resolving disagreements between family members and educators/service providers related to special education. For more information, please click on the following link: It is funded by the USDE Office of Special Education Programs.


Social and Emotional Learning at Home: Schools and Families Working Together.

Learning Skills of Peace Through Everyday Conflicts - (Pre-K-3) help adults work with children using songs, stories and other activities to address behaviors such as anger and aggression, biting, lying, and tantrums. English and Spanish:

Pedagogy/Classroom Management/Staff Development

The Ohio Resource Network for Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities, funded by the State of Ohio through the Ohio Department of Alcohol and Drug Addiction Services and the Ohio Department of Education and funded, in part, by the Federal Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act, has a web site, that supports prevention professionals, educators, community leaders, and parents in their efforts to create safe, caring, and drug free environments for youth. The site includes multimedia resources, lists trainings, free materials from the clearinghouse, and toolkits on a variety of prevention topics. The newest addition to is the Prevention Academy. Here you can engage in distance learning opportunities and receive RCH's online!! Visit and access three listservs or view online newsletters to keep connected with other professionals.

The North Carolina Center for the Prevention of School Violence has a conflict management training program for educators called “Reach In, Reach Out, Reach Over”. All training materials are available at no cost at:

Sample Interactive Learning Scenario

Conflict in the Classroom: “Issues under the hat” Classrooms are in many ways social laboratories. In addition to academics, social skills are being taught and or modeled such as communication courtesy and appropriate behavior. The following scenario will show how conflict might arise and be handled regarding a school policy, in this case disallowing students to wear hats in the classroom. At one point during the scenario, you will be asked to choose one of three available options that might lead to a win-win solution or to further problems for both the student and the teacher (
Flash player is needed on your computer to access this scenario. It can be downloaded at no cost at:

Curriculum Integration/Link to Academics

Alignment with Academic Content Standards – The Committee for Children has developed alignment charts on how their curriculum supports various state academic learning standards. The alignment charts illustrate the many connections between the Second Step program and student academic learning standards at all grade levels from Kindergarten to Grade 9. The charts align the Second Step curriculum with standards from Content Knowledge: A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks for K–12 Education by John S. Kendall and Robert J. Marzano, third edition (2003). This carefully analyzed compilation of content standards is a comprehensive model drawn from national subject-matter associations. In addition to the usual subject areas, such as math, science, and language arts, Life Skills and Behavioral Studies are included. This information can be accessed via their web site at:

Link between conflict management skills and topics to state of Ohio content standards and skills linked to multiple subject areas:

Sample Lessons and Activities

Teaching Skills of Peace Through Juvenile Literature: This bibliography includes an extensive list of children's books to aid parents, teachers, and caregivers in teaching young children skills of conflict management.

Children's Picture Book Database at Miami University: A bibliography for designing literature based thematic units searchable by topics, concepts, and skills:

Sample lessons for Pre-K-12 link to state content standards, and CRE skills linked to various subject areas:

Educators for Social Responsibility's (ESR) Online Teacher Center: ESR has been providing effective and credible resources for teaching important current issues for over 20 years. The Online Teacher Center (OTC). The OTC provides teaching resources on a range of issues related to international security, conflict resolution, peacemaking, violence prevention, and social responsibility. Free lessons can be downloaded from their web site at:

The Southern Poverty Law Center offers free materials to teach tolerance and respond to hate at school through their web site:

Student Programming

Additional ideas for creating a comprehensive program in a school from K-12 educators in Ohio schools, as it relates to school culture, pedagogy/classroom management/staff development, curriculum integration and student programming can be accessed by going to:

Tools to help schools build community: Mix It Up Dialogues from the Southern Poverty Law Center’s Teaching Tolerance Web Site are a place where students can come together, discuss why cliques exist and discover what they can do to break down barriers. Mix It Up Dialogue handbooks and classroom activities are available at no cost as are small grants for community projects to help create safe and welcoming schools year-round.

Peer Mediation

To view a short introductory video that covers a general overview of what a Peer Mediation program looks like at the High School level, please click here: The video includes Administration and Student testimonials about the success and value of Peer Mediation in their school. --1997 Newark Educational Television

Sample Interactive Learning Scenario for Adults

Creating a Youth Led Organization to Address School Climate Issues: “Creating Innovative Pathways to Acceptance and Peace”. According to the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Heath, children and youth make healthier lifestyle choices if they feel connected to others at home and at school. This scenario illustrates how a sensitive, observant administrator channels the talents of troubled youth in a positive direction – one that helps them reconnect to the school, while at the same time helps the school staff enhance the learning environment. (
Flash player is needed on your computer to access this scenario. It can be downloaded at no cost at:

Interactive Learning Scenario for Young Children

Out on a Limb: A Guide to Getting Along is a Web site that helps younger children learn about handling conflicts. It is created by the University of Illinois Extension -

Researched and Approved Programs

Reviews of Prevention Programs/Prevention Database:

Blueprints for Violence Prevention Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Programs and Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence:

Safe Schools, Safe Students: A Guide to Violence Prevention Strategies. Drug Strategies.

Safe and Sound: An Education Leader's Guide to Evidence-Based Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) Programs.

Best Practice References Bibliography

Association for Conflict Resolution (ACR). Recommended Guidelines for Effective Conflict Resolution Education Programs in K-12 Classrooms, Schools and School Districts. 2002. Available at:

Collaborative for Academic Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL) in Cooperation with the Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory, The Laboratory for Student Success (LSS). Safe and Sound: An Educational Leader's Guide to Evidence-Based (SEL) Social and Emotional Learning Programs. March 2003. Available at:

Hart, R.C., Shelestak, D. and Horwood, T.J. Cost Savings Report on School Conflict Management Program, Kent, Ohio. Kent State University, Bureau of Research Training and Services, February, 2003.

Jones, T. and Kmitta, D. Does it Work? The Case for Conflict Resolution Education in Our Nation's Schools. Washington, D.C.: formerly the Conflict Resolution Education Network (CREnet) now the Association for Conflict Resolution (ACR), 2000. Available at:

Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management [OCDRCM]. "Conflict Management in Schools: Sowing Seeds for a Safer Society. Final Report of School Conflict Management Demonstration Project 1990-1993." Columbus, Ohio: OCDRCM, 1994.

Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management [OCDRCM]. "Conflict Management Programs in Ohio Elementary Schools: Case Studies and Evaluation." Columbus, Ohio OCDRCM, 1997.

Tschannnen-Moran, M. "Seeds of Peace: Ohio's School Conflict Management Grant Program. An Evaluation of the 1996 High School Conflict Management Grant Program of the Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management and the Ohio Department of Education." Columbus: OCDRCM, 1999.